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    清朝皇族姓氏的探究

    PtxhJdFpM

    清朝是少數民族建立起的封建王朝,在王朝初期保留了很多的民族特色,在日后的發展過程中逐漸融合漢文化元素。區分民族地域最大的一個特征是姓氏文化,作為王朝統治者的愛新覺羅家族經歷了一個怎樣的姓氏文化演變過程?

    清太祖努爾哈赤

    姓氏追究與發展

    女真部落起源于東北白山黑水一帶,也就是今天的黑龍江吉林范圍。愛新覺羅的覺羅是女真部落的一個姓氏,意思為“遠方”,而愛新翻譯為漢語就是“金”的意思,金是努爾哈赤起兵后建立的政權稱號,以國姓冠在姓之前,算是將這個姓氏提高了一個崇高的地位。努爾哈赤之后的皇太極登基稱大汗后,他仿效漢文化改革了女真族的很多文化習俗,比如將族名從女真改為滿洲、國號從“金”變成“清”,還有一個舉措是將“愛新覺羅”定為國姓,只適用于皇室內部使用。

    這樣以來非皇族成員不能再使用單獨的“覺羅”作姓氏,他們便就地取材在覺羅前加上其他此語以示區分,最多的是加上自己族群所居住的地名,這樣就出現西林覺羅、伊爾根覺羅、舒舒覺羅等很多不同的覺羅姓氏,前面的伊爾根、西林等都是地方名稱。就像漢族的桐城張氏、常熟翁氏一樣。除了覺羅姓,其他的女真姓氏也是大致仿效,例如葉赫那拉氏、烏拉那拉氏、輝發那拉氏等,那拉是姓氏,葉赫、烏拉是地名。在不斷的發展使用中,地名加單純姓氏的組合姓氏被廣泛使用,成為新的姓氏。

    大清建國皇帝皇太極


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