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    智者求同 愚者求異

    dGjBzJZXb

    【光明論壇·溫故】

    作者:宋穎(北京交通大學馬克思主義學院文化教育中心青年學者)

    2014年,習近平總書記在比利時《晚報》發表題為《中歐友誼和合作:讓生活越來越好》的署名文章,文中指出:“‘智者求同,愚者求異’。中歐要本著相互尊重、平等相待、求同存異、合作共贏的態度去加強對話和溝通,尋求利益最大公約數,共享機遇,共迎挑戰。”

    “智者求同,愚者求異”是對《黃帝內經·素問·陰陽應象大論篇》中“智者察同,愚者察異”的化用,原文是:“智者察同,愚者察異。愚者不足,智者有余。有余則耳目聰明,身體輕強,老者復壯,壯者益治。是以圣人為無為之事,樂恬憺之能,從欲快志于虛無之守,故壽命無窮,與天地終。此圣人之治身也。”《黃帝內經》是我國最早的一部醫學典籍,也是道家一個重要分支“黃老學派”的代表作之一,它的中醫學說和養生治身之法,都以道家崇尚的“道”為最終根據。此處的“同”指的就是萬物相通的根本之“道”,而“異”則是萬物差別的表象。有智慧的人善于發現萬事萬物的“同”,抓住相通的根本,就會“有余”;而愚昧的人則總把注意力放在萬事萬物的差別上,從而被表象所困擾,舍本逐末,導致“不足”。“有余”者“耳目聰明,身體輕強,老者復壯,壯者益治”,能夠“壽命無窮”,所以“察同”是“圣人”的“治身”之道。這句話凝聚了中國文化的最高智慧,可以從三個方面來理解。

    該句原文出自道家經典,體現了道家思想的精義。它講的不僅是養生,也是治天下之理。道家學說本“出于史官”,在總結“禍福古今之道”的基礎上產生,目的在于實現致治之世。《呂氏春秋·執一》說道家思想:“以身為家,以家為國,以國為天下。此四者異位同本。故圣人之事,廣之則極宇宙,窮日月,約之則無出乎身者也。”這里說得非常透徹:身、家、國、天下這四者“異位同本”,表象雖異,本質則同,只要著眼于“本”和“同”,從最切近、最簡約的“身”做起,推之于天下,便可以使萬物各行自然,并行不悖,達到天下大治。所以《老子》言:“貴以身為天下,若可寄天下。愛以身為天下,若可托天下。”治身與治世實為一事,每個人“為無為之事”,各當其位,天下自然大治。這其中,“無為”是道家的核心理念,它并非通常所理解的什么都不去做,而是不刻意去做。順應了根本的“同”,不逆人情物理,自然而然就會“秉要執本”,以簡馭繁,這就是不刻意;而差異總是相對的,總把注意力放在糾正、抹殺萬物的差別上,就會陷于“此亦一是非,彼亦一是非”的境地,使一切更加復雜化,離根本之同越來越遠,這就是刻意為之,不但注定徒勞無功,甚至還會以末害本,是愚者之行。

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